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Forum Post
May 01, 2022
In Online Articles & Books
In the book "The Great Tragedy of India's Partition" by S.S. Sharma. The idea of two-nation theory was also supported by the likes of Savarkar and Lala Lajpat Rai. The book is an essential read for those who want to learn more about this topic, and it methodically goes into the stages that led to the division of the country. Link to book review
Tragedy of Partition: Book Review content media
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Forum Post
Apr 14, 2022
In Photographs
Wrecked buildings after communal riots in Amritsar in 1947 - (c) Keystone Features
Amritsar, 1947 content media
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Forum Post
Apr 11, 2022
In Geography & Demographics
In this article "When Emperors turned on Gurus", author Parvez Mahmood writes about the historical injustices suffered by the Sikhs that caused a growing rift between the two communities in Punjab. Excerpt ⓒThe Friday Times: The seeds of animosity between the two communities, Muslim and Sikh, that led to the eruption of such harrowing violence were planted three-and-a-half centuries earlier by an unfortunate episode during the unsuccessful rebellion of Prince Khusrau against his father, the newly enthroned Emperor Jahangir, and nourished by bloody events during the reign of Emperor Aurangzeb and later during the invasions of Ahmed Shah Abdali. As will be observed later in this article, the people of Punjab of all faiths had continued to live in peace with each other during those cataclysmic events in the 17th and 18th centuries and had suffered in equal measures at the hands of Turkic and Afghan invaders.
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Forum Post
Apr 09, 2022
Jinnah's Lahore Resolution and Partition content media
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Forum Post
Apr 09, 2022
In Online Articles & Books
Malwinderjit Warraich writes about his family's tragic journey from Gujranwala to Indian Punjab. "AMONG the millions caught on the wrong side of the divide was my family from the village of Ladhewala Waraich, close to Gujranwala in Punjab. A science student, I was 17 then. Gujranwala stood every chance of inclusion in Pakistan as the area was predominantly Muslim and was also geographically close to Lahore, the heart of newly-born West Punjab. Even after it was confirmed that Gujranwala would become part of Pakistan, the gloomy prospects of having to emigrate seemed remote to most non-Muslims because of the accepted thinking among Hindus and Sikhs that rulers had changed in the past, but not the ruled." Read full story here: https://www.tribuneindia.com/news/comment/our-journey-to-nowhere-375400
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Forum Post
Feb 05, 2022
In Photographs
Barefoot walking on the dusty plains of Punjab. Margaret Bourke-White 1947 Link: https://artsandculture.google.com/asset/mass-migration-india/mgFC2Axc_siewg
Refugees moving to Pakistan content media
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Forum Post
Feb 05, 2022
In Photographs
Wreckage of carts & belongings of refugees who had been camped there before the Beas River flooded over, during mass migration because of religious conflicts. Link: https://artsandculture.google.com/asset/mass-migration-india/PwEwRZnMaJCFvw Details Title: Mass Migration, India Date: 1947-10 Location: East Punjab, India Photographer: Margaret Bourke-White
Wreckage after Beas floods content media
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Forum Post
Jan 30, 2022
In Geography & Demographics
Sargodha was founded at the turn of the 20th century as headquarters of the Jhelum Canal Colony. Too often we forget that the canal colonies of Punjab were colossal enterprises of social and economic engineering. The vast tracts of agricultural land surrounding the administrative and market centre of Sargodha were, as in other colonies, divided geometrically into chaks farmed by settlers. The town too, bounded by a new railway line on one side, and a new canal on the other, was set out on a neat grid pattern. To the north of the railway station was the city and to the south was the large rectangle of the civil station. Link: https://thewire.in/books/marina-wheeler-the-lost-homestead-review Also refer to the study here by Hassan Javid from London School of Economics and Political science http://etheses.lse.ac.uk/468/1/Javid_Class%20Power%20and%20Patronage.pdf
Sargodha content media
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Forum Post
Jan 30, 2022
In Online Articles & Books
The 1947 Sirhind train massacre was an attack on Ropar ‘s prosperous, wealthy and influential muslim clan Abbasi Shekhaan of Shekhaan Miran locality of Ropar city. It killed 2000 Muslims of this clan and only a dozen people of clan survived. Link: https://en.everybodywiki.com/1947_Sirhind_Train_Massacre
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Forum Post
Jan 30, 2022
In Online Articles & Books
On 22 September 1947, Sir Terence Allen Shone, High Commissioner of the United Kingdom to India, sends a telegram to the Commonwealth Relations Office in which he reports on the recent events in India and Pakistan after the partition of the British Indian Empire. He particularly mentions the communal disturbances, providing information about the number of victims and outlining the problems associated with refugees and population movements. Link: https://www.cvce.eu/content/publication/2015/6/17/8a551bcc-fb9f-4524-81cf-6691e805cf47/publishable_en.pdf
Communal disturbances in September, 1947 content media
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Forum Post
Nov 28, 2021
In Online Articles & Books
Khushdeva Singh (1902–1985) was an Indian physician and social worker, known for his contributions towards the treatment of tuberculosis in India. As a doctor working in refugee camps, he saved many Muslim lives during partition. This is what Dr. Khushdeva Singh writes about his experience during one of his visits to Karachi in 1949 : My friends took me to a room at the airport where we all sat down and talked... (and) had lunch together, I had to travel from Karachi to London... at 2.30 am... At 5.00. p.m. ... I told my friends that they had given me so generously of their time, I thought it would be too much for them to wait the whole night and suggested they must spare themselves the trouble. But nobody left until it was dinner time.... Then they said they were leaving and that I must have a little rest before emplaning. .... I got up at about 1.45 a.m. and, when I opened the door, I saw that all of them were still there.... They all accompanied me to the plane, and, before parting, presented me with a small basket of grapes. I had no words to express my gratitude for the overwhelming affection with which I was treated and the happiness this stopover had given me. He kept repeating to himself as he returned from Karachi Love is stronger than hatred, love is far stronger than hatred, love is far stronger than hatred, love is far stronger than hatred, and love is far stronger than hatred at any time and anywhere. It was a thousand times better to love and die, than to live and hate. From his book Love is Stronger Than Hate: A Remembrance of 1947.
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Forum Post
Oct 04, 2021
In Online Articles & Books
We will not let anyone demolish the masjid, it is the house of god. The 100 years old mosque in village Hedon Bet, Machhiwara Tehsil in Ludhiana still stands tall, despite zero Muslim population in the village. The Mosque that was built in 1920 lies abandoned for want of worshipers. Article: https://countercurrents.org/2019/06/100-years-old-mosque-stands-tall-in-punjab/
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Forum Post
Aug 15, 2021
In Online Articles & Books
Written by Kusum Arora, an independent journalist. Hoshiarpur: Punjab, December 1, 1982. That winter day was special. The dense fog and cold was usual but it was fading away, with the warmth and love that came with the reunion of a family who had been separated in the India-Pakistan Partition 35 years before. Article link: https://thewire.in/south-asia/partition-memories-how-a-sikh-turned-muslim-woman-was-reunited-with-family-after-35-years
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Forum Post
Apr 18, 2021
In Videos
Interview by Andrew Whitehead The writer Kartar Singh Duggal and his wife Ayesha Duggal talking about their memories of Partition and their Sikh-Muslim romance at the time of independence. K.S. Duggal also reflected on his writing about Partition; Ayesha Duggal spoke about her work as a doctor at a camp for abducted women in Jalandhar - talking to Andrew Whitehead, Delhi, May 2007
Partition Voices: K.S. and Ayesha Duggal content media
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Forum Post
Mar 28, 2021
In Videos
Link to video: https://www.britishpathe.com/video/1-000-000-indians-on-the-move/query/punjab This video was taken around August, the start of monsoon season. Shows Sikhs and Muslim refugees.
Refugees on the move content media
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Forum Post
Mar 28, 2021
In Videos
Click here to go to video: https://www.britishpathe.com/video/VLVA2OYLD7WZQ860JJQTQZ587307S-AMRITSAR-SUFFERS-RIOTS-BETWEEN-MUSLIMS-AND-SIKHS/query/punjab Water puddles indicate that the month of August saw one of the heaviest rainfalls in Punjab in recent history. This is also corroborated by eye witness accounts and books written on Partition.
Amritsar, 2 weeks after Independence content media
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Forum Post
Mar 28, 2021
In Online Articles & Books
Reference link; https://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/resources/the-road-to-partition/movement-refugees/
Movement of Refugees in September, October and November 1947 content media
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Forum Post
Mar 28, 2021
In Online Articles & Books
When All Else Fails, by Chaim D. Kaufmann, Associate Professor of International Relations at Lehixh University. Link to study Excerpts: Although the provincial population overall was 56 percent Muslim, 27 percent Hindu, and just 13 percent Sikh, the Sikhs averaged considerably wealthier than the other communities and had exercised dispro- portionate power in provincial politics. By the 1940s Sikhs and Muslims had not fought in several decades, but they had a long history of intercommunal hostility. Sikhs also controlled a large fraction of the best land in Central Punjab and in the canal colonies in West Punjab. Accordingly, Sikhs feared Muslim dominance even more than Muslims feared Hindu rule; their wealth, political influence, religious freedom, and even physical security all might be at risk. From the Muslim point of view, the Sikhs presented a special threat because their martial tradition meant that the whole male population had to be considered armed. By the summer of 1947 Sikh leaders were desperate. On March 2 the Punjabs coalition government made up of the Congress Party, Sikhs, and the cross- communal Unionist Party had collapsed in the face of a massive Muslim League civil disobedience campaign.53In February and March Muslims had attacked Hindus and Sikhs in Lahore and Amritsar, the two main cities of central Punjab and the core of the region most likely to be disputed; more than 3,000 were killed.54Possibly most threatening had been Jinnah's proposal in December 1946 to Sikh leader Sardar Baldev Singh that the Muslims and Sikhs combine to seize all of Punjab, while still refusing to provide any guarantees of the status of Sikhs in Pakistan. This could only inflame key Sikh fears that Muslim rule would be oppressive, and that the Muslims would not be satisfied with any initial territorial settlement. In July, it was clear that the June 3 partition agreement would, in all likelihood, leave nearly 2 million Sikhs stranded in Pakistan. It appears that at this point Sikh leaders devised a four-point last-resort plan to protect their national security unilaterally: (1) if the boundary award proved unsatisfactory, to contest as much as possible of the core Sikh areas in central Punjab, and to resist possible Muslim attempts to contest any part of East Punjab; (2) to evacuate most Sikhs west of the line; (3) to eliminate the Muslim population east of the line, thus increasing the Sikh percentage in East Punjab after the war; and (4) later, to press the Indian government for redivision of East Punjab in order to create a true Sikh-majority province. Although the existence of such a plan cannot be established with certainty, there is suggestive evidence. As early as March 1947, the Sikh Panthic Party passed a resolution that it would fight Pakistan to the end. Military mobilization began in April, and by June the Sikh Akali Fauj had 8,000 men; in addition, the British provincial governor was receiving intelligence reports of a plan for a terror campaign in East Punjab. Sikh leaders, including Sardar Baldev Singh, the Sikh representative on the Boundary Commission, made clear that they would not respect an unfavorable award. Fighting began well before the award was even announced; starting on July 30, Sikh forces attacked Muslim villages in the central region around Lahore and Amritsar, which was disputed by both communities, as well as Muslim communities throughout East Punjab by the end of August, much of East Punjab had been cleared of its Muslim population.
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Forum Post
Mar 28, 2021
In Photographs
More images can be found by searching "Bourke White Lahore 1946"
Lahore in 1946 content media
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Forum Post
Mar 28, 2021
In Geography & Demographics
In this interview by Khayam Chohan, the eye witness recounts the massacre of Muslims in the village Mathi, Ludhiana district.
Mathi, Punjab content media
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